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              2013考研英語一答案及真題解析

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              【摘要】中公考研政治教研組特別為大家整理了2013考研英語一答案及真題解析,供大家復習參考,預祝大家都能考進理想的學府,開啟一段新人生!

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                以下是中公考研為各位同學準備的“2013考研英語一答案及真題解析”,希望對大家有幫助!

                Section I Use of English

                Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

                People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making individual decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that __1_ the ability to make judgments which are unbiased by _2_ factors. But Dr Simonton speculated that an inability to consider the big _3_ was leading decision-makers to be biased by the daily samples of information they were working with. _4_, he theorized that a judge _5_ of appearing too soft _6_crime might be more likely to send someone to prison __7_he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to forced community service on that day.

                To __8__this idea, they turned their attention to the university-admissions process. In theory, the ____9___ of an applicant should not depend on the few others___10____ randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr Simonton suspected the truth was____11____.

                He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews _12_ by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had _13_ applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale _14_ numerous factors into consideration. The scores were _15_ used in conjunction with an applicant’s score on the GMAT, a standardized exam which is _16_out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her.

                Dr Simonton found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one _17__ that, then the score for the next applicant would_18_ by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to_19_the effects of such a decrease a candidate would need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been _20__.

                1. A grants B submits C transmits D delivers

                2. A minor B external C crucial D objective

                3. A issue B vision C picture D moment

                4. A Above all B On average C In principle D For example

                5. A fond B fearful C capable D thoughtless

                6. A in B for C to D on

                7. A if B until C though D unless

                8. A. test B. emphasize C. share D. promote

                9. A. decision B. quality C. status D. success

                10. A. found B. studied C. chosen D. identified

                11. A. otherwise B. defensible C. replaceable D. exceptional

                12. A. inspired B. expressed C. conducted D. secured

                13. A. assigned B. rated C. matched D. arranged

                14. A. put B. got C. took D. gave

                15. A. instead B. then C. ever D. rather

                16. A. selected B. passed C. marked D. introduced

                17. A below B after C above D before

                18. A jump B float C fluctuate D drop

                19. A achieve B undo C maintain D disregard

                20. A necessary B possible C promising D helpful

                Section II Reading Comprehension

                Part A

                Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

                Text 1

                In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada ,Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her, Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant’s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to departments stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment.

                This top-down conception of the fashion business couldn’t be more out of date or at odds with the feverish would described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline’s three-year indictment of “fast fashion”. In the last decade or so ,advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara ,H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely. Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent release, and more profit. These labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable-meant to last only a wash or two, although they don’t advertise that –and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks. By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace.

                The victims of this revolution , of course ,are not limited to designers. For H&M to offer a $5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2,300-pius stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amounts of harmful chemicals.

                Overdressed is the fashion world’s answer to consumer-activist bestsellers like Michael Pollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma. “Mass-produced clothing ,like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is non-durable and wasteful,” Cline argues. Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year – about 64 items per person – and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste.

                Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named Sarah Kate Beaumont, who since 2008 has made all of her own clothes – and beautifully. But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example can’t be knocked off.

                Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment – including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection line –Cline believes lasting change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford not to.

                21. Priestly criticizes her assistant for her

                [A] poor bargaining skill.

                [B] insensitivity to fashion.

                [C] obsession with high fashion.

                [D] lack of imagination.

                22. According to Cline, mass-market labels urge consumers to

                [A] combat unnecessary waste.

                [B] shut out the feverish fashion world.

                [C] resist the influence of advertisements.

                [D] shop for their garments more frequently.

                23. The word “indictment” (Line 3, Para.2) is closest in meaning to

                [A] accusation.

                [B] enthusiasm.

                [C] indifference.

                [D] tolerance.

                24. Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?

                [A] Vanity has more often been found in idealists.

                [B] The fast-fashion industry ignores sustainability.

                [C] People are more interested in unaffordable garments.

                [D] Pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing.

                25. What is the subject of the text?

                [A] Satire on an extravagant lifestyle.

                [B] Challenge to a high-fashion myth.

                [C] Criticism of the fast-fashion industry.

                [D] Exposure of a mass-market secret.

                Text 2

                An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knows which half. In the internet age, at least in theory, this fraction can be much reduced . By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioral” ads at those most likely to buy.

                In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioral ads? Or should they have explicit permission?

                In December 2010 America's Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proposed adding a "do not track "(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell advertisers that they did not want to be followed .Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Apple's Safari both offer DNT ;Google's Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responding to DNT requests.

                On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer 10,the version due to appear windows 8, would have DNT as a default.

                It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Getting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioral ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway.

                Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. After all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point for windows 8-though the firm has compared some of its other products favorably with Google's on that count before. Brendon Lynch, M

                Microsoft's chief privacy officer, blogged:"we believe consumers should have more control." Could it really be that simple?

                      更多考研英語真題及答案解析,請點擊:考研英語歷年真題及答案解析匯總[page]
               

                26. It is suggested in paragraph 1 that “behavioral” ads help advertisers to:

                [A] ease competition among themselves

                [B] lower their operational costs

                [C] avoid complaints from consumers

                [D] provide better online services

                27. “The industry” (Line 6,Para.3) refers to:

                [A] online advertisers

                [B] e-commerce conductors

                [C] digital information analysis

                [D] internet browser developers

                28. Bob Liodice holds that setting DNT as a default

                [A] many cut the number of junk ads

                [B] fails to affect the ad industry

                [C] will not benefit consumers

                [D] goes against human nature

                29. which of the following is true according to Paragraph.6?

                [A] DNT may not serve its intended purpose

                [B] Advertisers are willing to implement DNT

                [C] DNT is losing its popularity among consumers

                [D] Advertisers are obliged to offer behavioral ads

                30. The author's attitude towards what Brendon Lynch said in his blog is one of:

                [A] indulgence

                [B] understanding

                [C] appreciation

                [D] skepticism

                Text 3

                Up until a few decades ago, our visions of the future were largely - though by no means uniformly - glowingly positive. Science and technology would cure all the ills of humanity, leading to lives of fulfillment and opportunity for all.

                Now utopia has grown unfashionable, as we have gained a deeper appreciation of the range of threats facing us, from asteroid strike to epidemic flu and to climate change. You might even be tempted to assume that humanity has little future to look forward to.

                But such gloominess is misplaced. The fossil record shows that many species have endured for millions of years - so why shouldn't we? Take a broader look at our species' place in the universe, and it becomes clear that we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years . Look up Homo sapiens in the "Red List" of threatened species of the International Union for the Conversation of Nature (IUCN) ,and you will read: "Listed as Least Concern as the species is very widely distributed, adaptable, currently increasing, and there are no major threats resulting in an overall population decline."

                So what does our deep future hold? A growing number of researchers and organizations are now thinking seriously about that question. For example, the Long Now Foundation has its flagship project a medical clock that is designed to still be marking time thousands of years hence .

                Perhaps willfully , it may be easier to think about such lengthy timescales than about the more immediate future. The potential evolution of today's technology, and its social consequences, is dazzlingly complicated, and it's perhaps best left to science fiction writers and futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage. That's one reason why we have launched Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future.

                But take a longer view and there is a surprising amount that we can say with considerable assurance. As so often, the past holds the key to the future: we have now identified enough of the long-term patterns shaping the history of the planet, and our species, to make evidence-based forecasts about the situations in which our descendants will find themselves.

                This long perspective makes the pessimistic view of our prospects seem more likely to be a passing fad. To be sure, the future is not all rosy. But we are now knowledgeable enough to reduce many of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to come.

                31. Our vision of the future used to be inspired by

                [A] our desire for lives of fulfillment

                [B] our faith in science and technology

                [C] our awareness of potential risks

                [D] our belief in equal opportunity

                32. The IUCN’s “Red List” suggest that human being are

                [A] a sustained species

                [B] a threaten to the environment

                [C] the world’s dominant power

                [D] a misplaced race

                33. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 5?

                [A] Arc helps limit the scope of futurological studies.

                [B] Technology offers solutions to social problem.

                [C] The interest in science fiction is on the rise.

                [D] Our Immediate future is hard to conceive.

                34. To ensure the future of mankind, it is crucial to

                [A] explore our planet’s abundant resources

                [B] adopt an optimistic view of the world

                [C] draw on our experience from the past

                [D] curb our ambition to reshape history

                35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

                [A] Uncertainty about Our Future

                [B] Evolution of the Human Species

                [C] The Ever-bright Prospects of Mankind

                [D] Science, Technology and Humanity

                Text 4

                On a five to three vote, the Supreme Court knocked out much of Arizona's immigration law Monday-a modest policy victory for the Obama Administration. But on the more important matter of the Constitution, the decision was an 8-0 defeat for the federal government and the states.

                Anarizona. United States, the majority overturned three of the four contested provisions of Arizona's controversial plan to have state and local police enforce federal immigrations law. The Constitutional principles that Washington alone has the power to "establish a uniform Rule of Anturalization" and that federal laws precede state laws are noncontroversial. Arizona had attempted to fashion state police that ran to the existing federal ones.

                Justice Anthony Kennedy, joined by Chief Justice John Roberts and the Court's liberals, ruled that the state flew too close to the federal sun .On the overturned provisions the majority held the congress had deliberately "occupied the field " and Arizona had thus intruded on the federal's privileged powers

                However, the Justices said that Arizona police would be allowed to verify the legal status of people who come in contact with law enforcement. That’s because Congress has always envisioned joint federal-state immigration enforcement and explicitly encourages state officers to share information and cooperate with federal colleagues.

                Two of the three objecting Justice-Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas-agreed with this Constitutional logic but disagreed about which Arizona rules conflicted with the federal statute. The only major objection came from Justice Antonin Scalia, who offered an even more robust defense of state privileges going back to the alien and Sedition Acts.

                The 8-0 objection to President Obama turns on what Justice Samuel Alito describes in his objection as “a shocking assertion of federal executive power”. The White House argued the Arizona’s laws conflicted with its enforcement priorities, even if state laws complied with federal statutes to the letter. In effect, the White House claimed that it could invalidate any otherwise legitimate state law that it disagrees with.

                Some powers do belong exclusively to the federal government, and control of citizenship and the borders is among them. But if Congress wanted to prevent states from using their own resources to check immigration status. It could. never did so. The administration was in essence asserting that because it didn't want to carry out Congress's immigration wishes, no state should be allowed to do so either. Every Justice rightly rejected this remarkable claim.

                36. Three provisions of Arizona’s plan were overturned because they

                [A] deprived the federal police of Constitutional powers.

                [B] disturbed the power balance between different states.

                [C] overstepped the authority of federal immigration law.

                [D] contradicted both the federal and state policies.

                37. On which of the following did the Justices agree, according to Paragraph4?

                [A] Federal officers’ duty to withhold immigrants’information.

                [B] States’ independence from federal immigration law.

                [C] States’ legitimate role in immigration enforcement.

                [D] Congress’s intervention in immigration enforcement.

                38. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that the Alien and Sedition Acts

                [A] violated the Constitution.

                [B] undermined the states’ interests.

                [C] supported the federal statute.

                [D] stood in favor of the states.

                39. The White House claims that its power of enforcement

                [A] Outweighs that held by the states.

                [B] is dependent on the states’ support.

                [C] is established by federal statutes.

                [D] rarely goes against state laws.

                40. What can be learned from the last paragraph?

                [A] Immigration issues are usually decided by Congress.

                [B] Justices intended to check the power of the Administration.

                [C] Justices wanted to strengthen its coordination with Congress.

                [D] The Administration is dominant over immigration issues.

                Part B

                Directions:

                In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points)

                The social sciences are flourishing. As of 2005, there were almost half a million professional social scientists from all fields in the world, working both inside and outside academia. According to the World Social Science Report 2010, the number of social-science students worldwide has swollen by about 11% every year since 2000.

                Yet this enormous resource in not contributing enough to today’s global challenges including climate change, security, sustainable development and health.(41)______Humanity has the necessary agro-technological tools to eradicate hunger , from genetically engineered crops to artificial fertilizers . Here, too, the problems are social: the organization and distribution of food, wealth and prosperity.

                (42)____This is a shame—the community should be grasping the opportunity to raise its influence in the real world. To paraphrase the great social scientist Joseph Schumpeter: there is no radical innovation without creative destruction.

                Today ,the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarly debates, rather than on topics with external impact.

                Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords “environmental changed” or “climate change” have increased rapidly since 2004,(43)____

                When social scientists do tackle practical issues ,their scope is often local: Belgium is interested mainly in the effects of poverty on Belgium for example .And whether the community’s work contributes much to an overall accumulation of knowledge is doubtful.

                The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding (44)____this is an adequate amount so long as it is aimed in the right direction. Social scientists who complain about a lack of funding should not expect more in today’s economic climate.

                The trick is to direct these funds better. The European Union Framework funding programs have long had a category specifically targeted at social scientists. This year, it was proposed that system be changed: Horizon 2020,a new program to be enacted in 2014,would not have such a category ,This has resulted in protests from social scientists. But the intention is not to neglect social science ; rather ,the complete opposite.(45)____That should create more collaborative endeavors and help to develop projects aimed directly at solving global problems.

                [A] It could be that we are evolving two communities of social

                scientists: one that is discipline-oriented and publishing in highly

                specialized journals, and one that is problem-oriented and publishing

                elsewhere, such as policy briefs.

                [B] However, the numbers are still small: in 2010,about 1,600 of the

                100,000 social-sciences papers published globally included one of these

                Keywords.

                [C] the idea is to force social to integrate their work with other categories, including health and demographic change food security, marine research and the bio-economy, clear, efficient energy; and inclusive, innovative and secure societies.

                [D] the solution is to change the mindset of the academic community, and what it considers to be its main goal. Global challenges and social innovation ought to receive much more attention from scientists, especially the young ones.

                [E] These issues all have root causes in human behavior. All require behavioral change and social innovations, as well as technological development. Stemming climate change, for example, is as much about changing consumption patterns and promoting tax acceptance as it is about developing clean energy.

                [F] Despite these factors , many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems . And in Europe , some are up in arms over a proposal to drop a specific funding category for social-science research and to integrate it within cross-cutting topics of sustainable development .

                [G] During the late 1990s , national spending on social sciences and the humanities as a percentage of all research and development funds-including government, higher education, non-profit and corporate -varied from around 4% to 25%; in most European nations , it is about 15%.

                Part C

                Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

                It is speculated that gardens arise from a basic need in the individuals who made them: the need for creative expression. There is no doubt that gardens evidence an impossible urge to create, express, fashion, and beautify and that self-expression is a basic human urge; (46) Yet when one looks at the photographs of the garden created by the homeless, it strikes one that , for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression.

                One of these urges had to do with creating a state of peace in the midst of turbulence, a “still point of the turning world,” to borrow a phrase from T. S. Eliot. (47)A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need. This distinction is so much so that where the latter is lacking, as it is for these unlikely gardens, the former becomes all the more urgent. Composure is a state of mind made possible by the structuring of one’s relation to one’s environment. (48) The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce from into an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such. In so doing they give composure to a segment of the inarticulate environment in which they take their stand.

                Another urge or need that these gardens appear to respond to, or to arise from is so intrinsic that we are barely ever conscious of its abiding claims on us. When we are deprived of green, of plants, of trees, (49) most of us give into a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in garden and feel the expression vanish as if by magic. In most of the homeless gardens of New York City the actual cultivation of plants is unfeasible, yet even so the compositions often seem to represent attempts to call arrangement of materials, an institution of colors, small pool of water, and a frequent presence of petals or leaves as well as of stuffed animals. On display here are various fantasy elements whose reference, at some basic level, seems to be the natural world. (50)It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of word garden though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions. In them we can see basophilic- a yearning for contact with nonhuman life-assuming uncanny representational forms.

                46. yet when one looks at the photographs of the gardens created by the homeless, it strikes one that, for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges beyond that of decoration and creative expression.

                47. A sacred place of peace, however, crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter which is a distinctly animal need.

                48. The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless garden introduce from in to an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such

                49 . Most of us give in to a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions until one day we find ourselves in a garden and feel the oppression vanish as if by magic

                50. It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of the word garden, though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions.

                      更多考研英語真題及答案解析,請點擊:考研英語歷年真題及答案解析匯總[page]
               

                Section III Writing

                Part A

                51.Directions:

                Write an e-mail of about 100 words to a foreign teacher in your college, inviting him/her to be a judge for the upcoming English speech contest.

                You should include the details you think necessary.

                You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

                Do not sign your own name at the end of the e-mail. Use “Li Ming “instead.

                Do not write the address.(10 points)

                Part B

                52.Directions:

                Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing .In your essay, you should

                1) describe the drawing briefly.

                2) interpret its intended meaning ,and

                3) give your comments.

                You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.(20points)

                Section I Use of English

                1.【答案】A grants

                【解析】第一句提到“總體而言,當人們自己做決定時,并不擅長考慮背景信息。”第二句順接上文,“乍一看這是一種優勢”,that引起定語從句,這種優勢使人們具有一種能力,即能夠做出不受外界因素影響的不帶偏見的決定。B選項submit “服從,提交”,不能與ability連用,C選項transmit “傳輸,發射”,也不能與ability 搭配,D選項deliver “傳遞”,同樣不能與ability搭配。A, C, D無論從搭配上還是意思上都不合適。A選項grant本身具有賦予,授予的意思。故答案選A。

                2.【答案】D external

                【解析】external外部因素和上文的background information同義復現,不考慮背景信息,不受外界因素影響。A選項minor 次要的,B選項objective 客觀的,C選項crucial 殘酷的,D選項external 外部的,故答案選D。

                3.【答案】C picture

                【解析】第三題本句but引起句意轉折。“但是XX推測不考慮大局會導致決策者被日常接觸的信息影響而帶有偏見。”首先注意到空前面有定冠詞the,指代上文信息,即不考慮背景信息、不考慮大環境。而大局,大環境的表達,此處選擇picture是最貼切的。A選項 issue 問題,B選項vision 想象力,美景都不合適,故答案選C。

                4.【答案】A For example

                【解析】通讀后面的句子,提到了法官與被告,這明顯是生活當中的一個具體的實例,故答案選A。而B選項 on average “平均,通常”,出現的話,周圍往往應該要出現數字。C選項in principle“大體上,原則上”,后面需要出現的是總結性的話語,D選項above all“首先”是用來列舉條目,將BCD排除。

                5.【答案】B fearful

                【解析】從句意上來看“例如,他們提出理論,認為法官不敢在罪行面前表現得太軟弱,如果當天已經宣判五六名被告執行緩刑,那么他很有可能將下一個人送入監獄。A選項fond of 喜歡,B選項 fear of 懼怕,C選項capable of 有能力,D選項thoughtless of 考慮不周,故答案選B。

                6.【答案】B on

                【解析】根據句內的邏輯關系,在對待犯罪行為方面害怕表現出太軟弱,在。。。方面,關于。。。的表達應該用介詞on,故答案為B。

                7.【答案】A if

                【解析】A if 表條件。B選項 until 表時間,往往跟not連用,直接排除。C選項though表讓步,D選項unless 相當于 if...not 。通讀空格所在的前后句子,得出這兩句之間的邏輯關系是表示條件的。

                8.【答案】D test

                【解析】首先注意到idea前面有定冠詞this,很明顯指代上文提出的觀點。而且跟上文以法官為例一樣,下文“他們把注意力轉向大學錄取過程”也是上文觀點的例證,目的是對上文的觀點進行檢驗,而不是A選項“促進”,B選項“強調”或C選項“分享”,故答案選D。

                9.【答案】D success

                【解析】A選項decision“決定”,B 選項quality“質量,品質”,C選項status“地位”,D選項success“成功”。申請者的____不應該取決于同一天隨機選到的其他幾名申請者。接著下文講到面試官面試MBA申請者的結果results,因此第9題應該也有結果的意思,與下文結合是達到正面的結果,因此答案是即“申請者的成功”。其它選項帶入原文重疊答案,與原義不符合

                10.【答案】A chosen

                【解析】空格后面有一個副詞為randomly,隨機地,既然是隨機,那么選項B選項studied“研究過的”,C選項found “找到的” D選項identified“經鑒定的”就與randomly是相矛盾的,全部排除。

                11.【答案】D otherwise

                【解析】本題解題關鍵在于but,通過suspect可以看出Dr. Simonton與前文意思相反,因此otherwise正好符合題意。

                12.【答案】C conducted

                【解析】此外明顯缺一個過去分詞作interviews的定語,再看by后面的officers,只有conducted(執行),符合語境,故為正確答案。

                13.【答案】B rated

                【解析】本題末尾one to five(從一到五),前面又有一個on a scale(…的范圍), A分配,D排列語義上說不通,再綜合后面的factor(因素),對比一下,只有B(劃分等級),整合起來,即劃分成一到五個等級,合情合理C match看似與to搭配,但也不符合文意,故正確答案為B.

                14.【答案】D took

                【解析】本題需聯系整句話,take…into consideration(考慮,涉及),從形式上來說沒有問題,再從意義上來看,說“這個等級考慮了幾種因素…”,是對上文評級的進一步解釋,也沒有問題。

                15.【答案】B then

                【解析】還是承接上文講到的評級得分,后半句講到的是(平時學校等級)考試得分,再結合中間conjunction一詞(聯接),可以推斷為then(具有承接之意),因此為正確答案,而A和D為同一意義和用法(代替),與conjunction相沖突,C說不通,故也為錯誤選項。

                16.【答案】C marked

                【解析】本題出在一個非限定性定語從句上,先行詞為a standardized exam, 后半句是800分,考試和分數之間首選marked,選項B通過具有一定的干擾性,但注意主語是考試,所以正確選項為C。A為無關選項。

                17.【答案】A before

                【解析】本句屬于比較級,對比的是幾個面試者的分數,C、D是空間上的上下,而這里缺的時間上的先后,故排除C和D,B是“之后”,不符合語言先后邏輯,故正確答案為A.

                18.【答案】C drop

                【解析】解本題需往下看,to…the effects of such a decrease, 由此可以判斷接下來那個應聘者的分數是出現了下降,故正確選項C.

                19.【答案】B undo

                【解析】該句為不定式作主語,“(面試考官可能給)更低的分數”所帶來的影響,可以推斷,是消除或是抵消這種不利結果,應聘者需要在GMAT中多拿30分,A “達到”,C “保持”D“漠視”明顯不符,故B為正確答案。

                20.【答案】C necessary

                【解析】該題難度較大,需把句意弄懂,也就是“這30分是比…所多的”建議把四個選項分別代入空格處,A有前途的,B可能的,C必須的,D有幫助的,對比之后,只有C最合邏輯

                Section II Reading Comprehension

                Part A

                Text 1

                21.【答案】(insensitivity to fashion)

                【解析】事實細節題。根據題干,首先定位到首段。由文章第一句后半句“…scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her.”意思是:“……批評她沒有魅力的助理,因為助理認為高級時尚對她的生活影響不大”?芍猚riticize是對scolds的同義替換,B項中的“insensitivity to fashion”是“imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her.”的同義替換。所以B項為正確答案。

                A項在文中并未提及,屬于無中生有。C項和D項是對文章第一句的曲解。

                22.【答案】(shop for their garments more frequently)

                【解析】事實細節題。根據題干,首先定位到第二段。由倒數第二句“these labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable, ……, and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks.”意思是“這些商標(暢銷商標)促使有時尚意識的消費者將服裝看成是用完就可以丟棄的,……,并且每周更新他們的衣櫥。”D選項“shop for their garments more frequently”的意思是“更加頻繁地購買服裝”,正好是“renew their wardrobe every few weeks”的同義替換。

                A,B,C項均屬于無中生有項。

                23.【答案】(accusation)

                【解析】詞義題。題干中需要猜測詞義的單詞出現在第二段的第一句“……the feverish world described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline’s three-year indictment of ‘fast fashion’”。再結合選項可知,“indictment”是Elizabeth Cline對“快時尚”的一種態度。因此,解答此題的關鍵在于聯系上下文語境,找到Elizabeth Cline對“快時尚”的態度。由第二段最后一句“By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace.”,意思是“Cline說,通過以特別低的價格銷售潮流物品,這些品牌破壞了潮流周期,動搖了這個長久以來習慣于季節周期的產業”。由“hijack”和“shaking”可知,Cline對“快時尚”應該是持否定態度的,所以選項A“accusation (譴責)”是正確選項。

                24.【答案】(pricing is vital to environmental-friendly purchasing)

                【解析】推理判斷題。根據題干,可定位到最后一段。解題關鍵在于“Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford not to”,意思是“每個人都很虛榮,這很常見。但消費者付不起太多東西的時候,他們才會以更加可持續的方式去購物。”這句的關鍵詞是“afford”和“shop more sustainably”,對應于D項中的“pricing”和“environmental-friendly purchasing”。A項對于本段的曲解。B項說的是“忽視環境的可持續發展”,與文中“several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment…”(一些時尚服飾公司已經做出努力減少對勞動力和環境)意思相悖。C項文中未提及。

                25.【答案】(criticism of the fast-fashion industry)

                【解析】主旨大意題。此題考查對全文主旨大意的準確歸納。從整個文章脈絡來看,文章的第一段用事例引入,第二段講到文章的主題“快時尚”,并指出它破壞了時尚周期,動搖了時尚產業。第三四段指出“快時尚”這種變革的弊端,比如:給自然資源造成壓力、使用大量有害的化學物質、浪費現象。最后兩段提到針對“快時尚”的不良影響,可以采取的解決辦法。由此可知,C項統領全文,為正確答案。

                A, B,D項都不是文章所論述的中心主題。

                Text 2

                26.【答案】(lower their operational costs)

                【解析】事實細節題。根據題干,首先定位到首段。這段的大意是廣告經費的一半都浪費掉了,但是通過“behavioral ads”可以追蹤購買者的搜索習慣和評價,使得廣告更有針對性,從而降低預算成本,也就是“this fraction can be much reduced”。 A、B和C選項文中并未提及,屬于無中生有。

                27.【答案】(internet browser developers)

                【解析】詞義句意題。the industry在語篇中是指代前面的出現內容,而前面出現的Microsoft Internet Explorer,Apple’s Safair 和Google’s Chrome都是D選項中中的“Internet browser developers”。 B和C選項文中并未提及,屬于無中生有。A選項并非本段中談論的核心。

                28.【答案】(will not benefit consumers)

                【解析】推理判斷題。解題關鍵在于“… consumers will be worse off if the industry cannot collect information about their preferences”,也就是說,當瀏覽器開發者不能收集消費者網上購物傾向時,消費并不能從中受益。B、C和D選項文中并未提及,屬于無中生有。

                29.【答案】(DNT may not serve its intended purpose)

                【解析】推理判斷題。根據題干,可以定位到第六段。解題關鍵在于理解本段的行文邏輯,即“unable to tell whether…or whether, some may ignore…”。也就是說“由于不能辨別有些主體是真正反對行為廣告,也不能辨別它們支持微軟的做法,有些人甚至忽視DNT,繼續先前的做法。”可此可見,B項符合題意。A、C和D選項內容在本段中均沒有提及。

                      更多考研英語真題及答案解析,請點擊:考研英語歷年真題及答案解析匯總[page]
               

                30.【答案】(skepticism)

                【解析】觀點態度題。根據題干,可以定位到文章最后一段倒數第二句,Brendon Lynch的博客中評論道:“我們認為消費者應該有更大的自主權(或掌控權)”。解題關鍵在于最后一句“Could it be really that simple?”,從中可明顯看出作者的懷疑態度。A項是“理解”,B項是“贊成”,D選項是“縱容”的意思。

                Text 3

                31.【答案】 our faith in science and technology

                【解析】事實細節題。根據出題的順序性原則,可回文定位到文章第一段。該段落共計兩句話。第一句總體交代了過去人們對未來的暢想總體是積極,正面的(were largely positive)。本題的正確答案就隱含在第二句話中。第二個句子實際上緊接著第一句話,交代了積極暢想的原因在于“科學和技術能治愈人類的一切疾病”,由此可確定本題的正確答案為B。選項A、D都錯在因果倒置,“ lives of fulfillment”以及“opportunity for all”都是科學、技術帶來的結果,并非原因。選項C屬于無中生有,本段并沒有提及任何與“ potential risks”相關內容,故排除。

                32. 【答案】a sustained species

                【解析】題干問的是“瀕危物種名單(Red List)”意味著人類怎么樣了?我們根據“IUCN”和“Red List”很容易定位到第三段。首段說的是幾十年前至今人們對未來所持的態度,第二段出現轉折,表明目前人們對于未來的危機意識加重。第三段再次轉折,表示第二段中人們所持態度是錯誤的,即“人類未來不會有太大的生存危機”,并且在此段首句表明觀點后,用各種信息去論證和支持這一觀點。“Red List”很顯然也是用來說明這個觀點的,并且指出人類這個物種是widely distributed,adaptable,currently increasing,說的都是人類進化積極的一面。A選項說:瀕危物種名單意味著人類是可以持久生存的物種,顯然是正確選項。

                33. 【答案】Our Immediate future is hard to conceive.

                【解析】段落推斷題。由本題的題干可以鎖定本題的答案在文章的第五段。該段首句為段落中心句,“與思考眼前的未來相比,對如此之長的時間跨度進行思考似乎更為容易”,反過來思考也就是說,眼前的未來更難思考,符合D選項含義“我們眼前的未來很難去設想”。A選項“Arc 幫助縮小了未來學研究的范圍”,該選項在文中出現在該段的最后一句話“這就是為什么我們可以發行Arc這樣一個致力于研究近期未來的全新出版物”,和題目含義有很大出入,故排除。B選項“技術為社會問題提供了解決方法”,段中并未提到。C選項“對科幻小說的興趣與日俱增”,該段中雖在第二句提到科幻小說家,但并未提及對科幻小說的興趣,故排除。正確答案為D項“Our immediate future is hard to conceive”。

                34.【答案】 draw on our experience from the past

                【解析】段落細節題。由本題的題干可以鎖定本題的答案在倒數第二自然段第二句,“As so often , the past holds the key to the future . ”此題就是考查對這句話的理解,“未來是掌握過去的關鍵。”由此確定正確答案為B。選項A 、C、D 與題干無關,在原文中無直接體現,也不能歸納得出,故排除。

                35.【答案】The Ever-bright Prospects of Mankind

                【解析】全文的主旨題?疾榭忌鷮θ闹黝}的把握。通觀全文,我們可發現作者對未來是十分看好的,尤其在文章最后一段最后一句“But we are now knowledgeable enough to reduce many of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to come. ”作者直接借助這句話重申主題。由此,本題正確答案應既包含“未來”,也應能體現出作者對未來的態度。確定選項C為正確答案。選項A錯在無中生有,全文當中對于未來,并無體現出對于其的不確定;本文講的是人類對于未來的看法,而不是講人類的進化史,因此B錯誤;D選項過于籠統,并未體現出作者的樂觀態度,因此不對。

                Text 4

                36.【答案】 overstepped the authority of federal immigration law.

                【解析】事實細節題。principles that federal laws precede state laws are noncontroversial are noncontroversial.說明聯邦法律高于州的法律是無可爭辯的。答案選項they“overstepped the authority of federal immigration law.”---他們(亞利桑那州的法案)逾越了聯邦法案。就是對文中這句話的反義改寫。Overstep 為同義替換原文中的intrude, authority 同義替換了privileged powers.

                屬于同義置換。

                37.【答案】States’ legitimate role in immigration enforcement.州政府在移民法案實施中的合法地位。

                【解析】第四段主要說明了,州警察依然可以核實移民的法律地位。國會設想joint federal-state immigration enforcement聯合實施移民法案。同時,encourages state officers to share information and cooperate with federal colleagues.國會鼓勵州警察與聯邦同事分享信息以及相互合作。其他選項的withhold,independence,intervention文中也沒有提到。屬于過度推斷。

                38.【答案】(Stood in favor of the states)

                【解析】第五段最后一句:唯一的最主要的反對來自法官Antonino Scalia, 這個法官“defense”是支持州的權利的,“going back to”可追溯到Alien and Sedition Acts,證明這個法案是支持州的權利的。

                39.【答案】(outweighs that held by the states.)

                聯邦政府的權利大過州的實施權利

                【解析】第六段The White House 認為亞利桑那州的法律跟白宮的法律實施權利沖突。In effect后面表達的是重點:如果這些州的法律跟它有沖突的話,白宮聲明它有權利宣布其它州的法律無效。

                40.【答案】(The Administration is dominant over immigration issues.)

                (政府在移民問題上占據著主導地位)

                【解析】本段第一句話,聯邦政府確實有一些exclusively(專門地)權利,比如控制居民以及邊界。這就暗示了移民問題上,政府當局是具有主導權利的。

                Part B

                41.【答案】G (These issues all have root causes in human behavior...)

                【解析】此題可以通過上下文的銜接和代詞指代來確定答案?崭袂耙痪湔劦“這種巨大的能源不是當今全球問題的主要影響因素,這些問題包括氣候變化、安全、可持續發展和健康問題”,空后談到“人類有必要的農業技術工具來消除饑餓”,空格處應該填入的選項可以連接前后句的內容,既包括談及到全球問題,又談及到解決問題的選項只有G項。該項首句提到的these issues即指代空前所提及的全球問題,以及該項第二句的climate change舉例說明即是空前所列出的問題之一,并且該項提及解決氣候變化的問題,很好的啟示了下文。

                42.【答案】C (Despite these factors...)

                【解析】本題可以通過連貫性原則和代詞指代來確定答案。上段末句提到“問題也帶有社會因素:對食物的組織和分配,財產和財富”,空格后談到“這是一種恥辱,社會應該抓住機會提升它在真實世界中的影響”,并且應用了社會科學家的話語來表明應該采取行動,即:上段末句提到的問題,空前談到存在問題,那么接下來應該解決問題,但是空后談到這是一種恥辱,然后糾正應該解決問題,所以空格處應該承上啟下,表達沒有解決問題這個含義,因此C項“盡管存在這些因素,很多社會科學家不愿意解決此問題”即為正確選項,該項中these factors指代上段末句提到的社會因素,而“很多科學家不愿意解決此問題”就是下文提及的this。

                43.【答案】B (However, the numbers are still small...)

                【解析】本題可以通過原詞復現和邏輯關系來確定答案?涨耙痪渲v到“ the number of papers including.....have increased rapidly ...”,緊接著在選項B中也出現了“the number”,屬于原詞復現。從邏輯關系的角度來看,選項B有一個明顯的轉折詞“however”,這說明其表達的含義與空前信息相反,該選項提到“the numbers are still small”(數量非常小),空前信息是“the number ... increased rapidly”(數量增長非常迅速),兩者在語意上構成了明顯的轉折關系。所以正確答案為B。

                44.【答案】D (During the late 1990s...)

                【解析】本題設在段落中間,可以通過段落一致性代詞指代來確定答案。該段第一句提到:“The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding”,其表達的含義是:事情的問題不是可用資金的數目。那接下來要講的內容一定和資金有關系?蘸蟪霈F了代詞“this is an adequate amount”其含義是:這個資金數目是足夠的。那么this指代的內容一定和adequate amount相關,而選項D的題干是“national spending varied from 4% to 25%”,其表述的內容正是資金的總量。因此選項D為正確答案。

                45.【答案】E (The idea is to force social to integrate...)

                【解析】本題設空在段落中間,應瞻前顧后地依據連貫性原則確定答案?涨暗男畔⑹侵笟W盟提議取消了之前設定的專門投資支持社會科學家的專欄項目,其目的不是為了忽略社會科學家,而是完全相反,即文章中的“complete opposite”,根據語意銜接,接下來會說明歐盟這一做法的真正目的,并且這一目的對于社會科學家一定是積極的。選項E中的the idea指代空前出現的“it was proposed that...”,即歐盟的提案。除此之外,空后提到了collaborative endeavors,與選項E中的短語integrate with構成了同義替換?蘸笮畔⒅械膅lobal problems與選項E中的health and demographic change, food security, ... and secure societies構成上下義的關系,這也是解題的一道線索,因此,正確答案為選項E。

                Section III Translation

                46. yet, when one looks at the photographs of the gardens created by the homeless, it strikes one that, for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression.

                【參考譯文】然而,看著無家可歸者繪制出的花園圖片時,人們會突然想到,盡管這些花園風格多樣,它們都顯示了人類除了裝飾和創造性表達之外的其他各種基本訴求

                47. A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need.

                【參考譯文】無論地方多么簡陋不堪,尋求一片靜謐圣土是人類特有的需求,而動物需要的僅是僅是避難棲息之地。

                48. The gardens of the homeless, which are in effect homeless gardens, introduce form into an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such.

                【參考譯文】無家可歸者的樂園,實際上是一個毫無家庭氣息的地方,給城市環境帶來了一種新的形式。。

                無家可歸者描繪的花園實質上是無所依附的,這些花園把一種形式引入城市環境中,而這樣的城市環境中,形式要么根本不存在, 要么就完全不是以這種明顯的方式存在。

                49. Most of us give in to a demoralization of spirit which usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in a garden and feel the oppression vanish as if by magic.

                【參考譯文】我們大多數人會深陷于精神萎靡的狀態,并常常將此歸咎為一些心理原因,直到某天我們發現自己置身花園中,感到如魔法般煩悶盡消

                50. It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of the word garden, though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions.

                【參考譯文】正是對自然的這種或隱晦含蓄或清晰直白的提及,充分證實了用“花園”一詞來描述這些虛擬建筑是合乎情理的,即使是從毫無拘泥的意義來講的。

                Section IV Writing

                51.【參考范文】

                Dear Mr. Wilson,

                I am writing on behalf of the Student’ Union to invite you to be a judge for the upcoming English speech contest. It will be held in ROOM304, the North Building next Friday.

                This contest aims at improving our abilities in practical English. We know that you are admired by all the students. We would be grateful if you could be the judge for this contest. The participants are mainly the seniors and the theme is concerning the importance of environmental protection.

                It’s our greatest pleasure that you can present yourself in this great event. We are looking forward to a favorable reply at your earliest convenience.

                Yours sincerely,

                Li Ming

                52.

                【參考范文】

                Emerging from the cartoon is an eye-catching scene that college graduates are at a turning point on the way to choose their future destination. When stepping out of the campus, a variety of choices, such as finding a job, going further education or abroad, and doing pioneering work, lie in front of these young people.

                The implication echoed by this drawing remind us the great importance of a philosophic topic in our daily life:a successful life is directly related to the choice made by oneself. Nevertheless, we cherish a belief that we cannot tell whether the selection is good or not, and as long as we adhere to our decision success will be realized step by step. Making choice is essential to help determine the direction of our way, and persistence functions as an indispensable driving force to keep up our spirit and to assist us to fulfill our study and work. Only those who are hard-working and brave enough to encounter obstacles of all sorts are most likely to reach the summit of success.

                Positive mental guidance should be popularized among the young people to help them make wise decision in their life. Besides, the youngster should be educated to realize the reality. Only in this way, can they make the right choice and shoulder the real success.

                以上是中公考研為大家準備的“2013考研英語一答案及真題解析”。另外,為幫助同學們更好地備戰2018考研,中公考研推出了全年集訓營、OL樂學、名校保研培訓班、精品網課,以及考研直播課堂,針對每一科目進行深入的分析和指導,為大家的考研夢想助力! 

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